Theodore Dumont Ruel, MD

Assistant Professor, Dept of Pediatrics, UCSF

E-mail Address:


Professional Interests:
Pediatrics, HIV, latent HIV reservoir, HIV subtype

Current Main Activities:
Recently served as vice-chair of PROMOTE-pediatrics. Currently using banked specimens and data from PROMOTE-peds and CHAMP to answer questions about disease progression and latent HIV reservoir in infected children.

Education and Training:

BA, Physics, Dartmouth College
MD, Yale Univsersity School of Medicine
Pediatrics Residency, University of California, San Francisco
Pediatric Infectious Disease Fellowship, University of California, San Francisco



1. Ruel T, Ssewanyana I, Achan J, Gasasira A, Kamya MR, Kekitiinwa A, et al. Dynamics of T cell activation accompanying CD4 recovery in antiretroviral treated HIV-infected Ugandan children. Clinical Immunology. 2009; 131(3):410-4.

2. Gasasira AF, Kamya MR, Ochong EO, Vora N, Achan J, Charlebois E, Ruel T, Kateera F, Meya DN, Havlir D, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole on the risk of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children living in an area of widespread antifolate resistance. Malaria Journal. 2010; 9:177. PMCID: PMC2903607.

3. Charlebois ED, Ruel TD, Gasasira AF, Achan J, Kateera F, Akello C, Cao H, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Ssewanyana I, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Short-term risk of HIV disease progression and death in Ugandan children not eligible for antiretroviral therapy Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2010; 55:330-5. PMCID: PMC3025136.

4. Boivin MJ, Ruel TD, Boal HE, Bangirana P, Cao H, Eller LA, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Kamya MR, Achan J, Akello C, Wong JK. HIV-subtype A is associated with poorer neuropsychological performance compared with subtype D in antiretroviral therapy-naive Ugandan children. AIDS 2010; 24:1163-70. PMCID: PMC2880483.

5. Ruel TD, Kamya MR, Li P, Pasutti W, Charlebois ED, Liegler T, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir DV, Wong JK, Achan J. Early virologic failure and the development of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV-infected Ugandan children. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2011; 56:44-50. PMCID: PMC3078046.

6. Ruel T, Zanoni B, Ssewanyana I, Cao H, Charlebois ED, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Feeney, M. Sex differences in HIV RNA level and CD4 percentage during childhood. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2011: 53(6):592-599. PMCID:PMC3160805.

7. Kay J, Wanzira H, Sandison T, Kakuru A, Bigira V, Kamya M, Homsy J, Tappero J, Havlir D, Dorsey G, Ruel T. Virologic suppression in nevirapine-exposed HIV-infected infants initiating antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2012: 58(3):194-9..

8. Ruel T, Boivin M, Boal H, Bangirana P, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Rosenthal P, Dorsey D, Achan J, Akello C, Kamya M, Wong J. Neurocognitive and motor deficits in HIV-infected Ugandan children with high CD4 cell counts. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Clinical Infectious Disease. 2012; 54(7):1001-9. PMC Journal - In Process.

9. Young S, Murray K, Mwesigwa J, Natureeba P, Osterbauer B, Achan J, Arinaitwe E, Clark T, Ades V, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel T, Kamya M, Havlir D, Cohan D. Maternal nutritional status predicts adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected Rural Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. PLOS ONE. 2012; 7(8):E41934.

10. Achan J, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Ruel T, Clark T, Charlebois E, Rosenthal P, Dorsey G, Havlir D, Kamya M. A trial of lopinavir/ritonavir-based versus non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012 Nov 29;367(22):2110-8. PMID:23190222.